La cabaña primitiva

Publicado por Basilio en

Shabono Yanomami

La cabaña primitiva es un concepto de la historia de la arquitectura que alude al origen de la misma como consecuencia lógica del desarrollo humano. Las sociedades modifican el entorno y crean espacios arquitectónicos como respuesta a necesidades de habitación. Las cuales son producto de la sedentarización.

«Por tanto, con ocasión del fuego surgieron entre los hombres las reuniones, las asambleas y la vida en común, que cada vez se fueron viendo más concurridas en un mismo lugar; (…) comenzaron unos a procurarse techados utilizando ramas y otros a cavar grutas bajo los montes, y algunos a hacer, imitando los nidos de las golondrinas con barro y ramas, recintos donde poder guarecerse. Luego, otros, observando los techos de sus vecinos y añadiéndoles ideas nuevas, fueron de día en día mejorando los tipos de sus chozas. (…) Al principio plantaron horcones, y entrelazándolos con ramas levantaron paredes que cubrieron con barro; otros edificaron, con terrones y céspedes secos, sobre los que colocaron maderos cruzados, cubriendo todo ello con cañas y ramas secas para resguardarse de las lluvias y del calor; pero para que semejantes techumbres pudieran resistir las lluvias invernales, las remataban en punta y las cubrían con barro para que, merced a los techos inclinados, resbalase el agua.»

Capítulo primero del Libro II de Los diez libros de Arquitectura , Vitruvio

Antes de la Cabaña

Hay un grupo humano que todavia vive en una fase previa  a la cabaña primitiva. En la Isla Sentinel Norte sus habitantes llevan decenas de miles de años viviendo como cazadores recolectores, obteniendo lo que necesitan del ecosistema sin alterarlo, los Sentinelenses.

Indigenas isla Sentinel Norte
Fuente © Indian Coastguard/Survival

El pasado 17 de Noviembre de 2018 fue noticia la muerte de un predicador por parte de una tribu indigena no contactada en la isla Sentinel Norte, situada en el archipiélago Andarmán, India. Este desafortunado incidente llamó la atención del gran publico acerca de la existencia de esta tribu.

Los Sentinelenses son el único grupo humano aislado del Viejo Mundo, habitan esa isla desde el Pleistoceno. No conocen la navegación y es posible que sus antepasados llegaran andando desde el continente cuando el nivel del mar era mucho mas bajo.

En el mapa se puede ver la isla Sentinel Norte, por lo que sabemos de los Sentinelenses desconocen el fuego y la agricultura, siendo posiblemente la última comunidad humana totalmente paleolítica que queda. No se han encontrado estructuras ni se han apreciado talas de la densa selva de la isla, lo cual es comprobable en las imágenes por satélite.

Es posible que los Sentinelenses duerman en los arboles, en pequeños vivacs para protegerse de la lluvia, como hacen algunas tribus nómadas del Amazonas. En todo caso su cultura es previa a la modificación del paisaje y a la creación de Arquitectura.

La cabaña

La creación de la cabaña primitiva implica la necesidad de un espacio semipermanente donde habitar con el fin de almacenar y procesar recursos. Es un salto cualitativo en la complejidad social, que acaba desembocando en  la sociedad urbana.
Muchas tribus aisladas siguen manteniendo modelos arquitectónicos que responden a sociedades incipientemente agrícolas que siguen dependiendo de la caza y la recolección.

Shabono Yanomami, 1961
Fuente René Fuerst

El caso de los yanomami es paradigmático. Al carecer de estratificación social ni tener concepto de propiedad privada, su espacio de habitación es común y los recursos almacenados se comparten. Su arquitectura típica es el Sabono, el cual es una gran casa comunal de planta anular.

Sabono Yanomami edificio tradicional

Estructura Social

No todos los grupos  tribales no contactados tienen una estructura social horizontal como los Yanomami. La estratificación social implica la creación de estructuras arquitectónicas diferenciadas. Ésto es lo mas comun en las sociedades totalmente agrícolas, ya que la necesidad de protección de los cultivos y el crecimiento demográfico acaba desembocando en la formación del concepto de propiedad de la tierra y de clases sociales.

En la Amazonia muchas de las tribus no contactadas mantienen esas estructuras sociales neolíticas aunque son nómadas. Esto se puede explicar debido a que en realidad llevan pocas generaciones como nómadas. Dado que huir a la selva fue su única forma de salvarse de persecuciones durante la colonización de sus tierras. Por lo que pasaron a llevar un estilo de vida más primitivo.

Tribu no contactada estado de Acre, Brasil
Fuente Wikimedia Commons

En la imagen superior se puede ver un ejemplo de comunidad amazónica con estratificación social jerarquizada. Sus cabañas se agrupan formando una T. Al contario que con los Yanomami cada grupo social dispone de su cabaña y sus recursos, orientandose todas las cabañas hacia la del líder del grupo.




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